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DATE OF SURGERY: 06/10/2019
PREOPERATIVE DIAGNOSES: Left shoulder pain, status post hemiarthroplasty/biologic glenoid resurfacing with glenoid arthrosis and erosion. Rotator cuff deficiency. History of rheumatoid arthritis.
POSTOPERATIVE DIAGNOSES: Left shoulder pain, status post hemiarthroplasty/biologic glenoid resurfacing with glenoid arthrosis and erosion. Rotator cuff deficiency. History of rheumatoid arthritis.
- Left shoulder open exploration with capsular contracture and extra articular scar release.
- Left revision reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.
- Vertical humeral osteotomy for removal of implant with subsequent ORIF with intramedullary stem and cerclage suture/wire.
ESTIMATED BLOOD LOSS: 300 cc.
FLUIDS AND URINE OUTPUT: Per Anesthesia record.
INDICATIONS: This is a very pleasant 56-year-old female, who has had significant pain and dysfunction of her left shoulder refractory to conservative care with the aforementioned diagnoses. Options were discussed at length, and she wished to proceed with the above-mentioned operative procedures. After a lengthy discussion of the risks and benefits involved, full informed consent was obtained to proceed with the above preoperatively.
COMPONENTS REMOVED: Tornier Aequalis cemented humeral stem and Achilles tendon/soft tissue allograft glenoid surface.
COMPONENTS PLACED: Wright Medical Aequalis PerFOrM Plus reverse total shoulder system with half wedge augment baseplate 25 mm x 35-degree, 39 mm +3 mm lateralized glenosphere, 9 mm PTC proximal body, Aequalis Flex revised stem with 9 mm x 90 mm PTC distal stem, standard locking cap +0 mm reverse tray, eccentricity 3.5 mm placed at approximately 5.5 mm, and a +9 mm reversed insert for 39 mm glenosphere angle C 7.5 degrees. Total neck shaft angle 140 degrees.
One central locking/compression screw, one superior compression screw, and 2 additional locking screws.
DESCRIPTION OF PROCEDURE:
The patient was brought to the operating room, where general endotracheal anesthesia was induced by Dr. H. after interscalene block was administered.
The patient was carefully placed in beach chair position with hips flexed 45 degrees, knees flexed 30 degrees. All bony prominences were padded well, and the head was held in a near neutral position by McConnell head holder. The left shoulder was prepped and draped in standard sterile fashion using a Betadine scrub and paint. The left iliac crest region was also prepped and draped in case an iliac crest bone graft would be required. After prep and drape of the left upper extremity, examination under anesthesia revealed stiffness in all planes with 100 degrees forward flexion and abduction, external rotation of 30 degrees with the arm at side, and internal rotation of 20 degrees with the arm abducted. Ioban sticky drape was applied. Antibiotics were held until appropriate cultures were obtained. Previous scar was incised for a length of approximately 15 cm extending it slightly distally. Full-thickness skin flaps were elevated and deltopectoral interval fully explored proximal to distal.
Cephalic vein was not encountered. The dense scar in the subdeltoid space was released revealing the humeral scapular interface superiorly laterally and anteriorly underneath the coracoid. There was dense scar between the coracoid and the remaining rotator cuff and anterior scar. Multiple soft tissue specimens were sent for pathology and microbiology including multiple sutures. The rotator interval was opened. The subscapularis was essentially completely deficient with only a thin layer of scar in the anterior shoulder taking place of the original subscapularis tendon. The scar was removed and capsular contracture released from the inferior glenoid. Scar was released superiorly and posterolaterally and laterally. The proximal humerus was dislocated revealing significant proximal humeral bone loss from the metaphysis. Soft tissue and bony samples were sent for pathology and microbiology. Osteotomes and rongeur were used to remove cement, and soft tissue and bone from around the prosthesis. A thin bur was used to remove bone and cement from around the lateral prosthesis to allow disimpaction of the prosthesis and removal.
Initially, attempts were made to lightly disimpact the prosthesis to remove cement mantle, but these attempts were unfruitful. The decision was made to proceed with a vertical osteotomy of the humeral shaft to facilitate removal of the implant and removal of cement.
Osteotomy was made at the location of maximum bone loss and distally just lateral to pectoralis and latissimus dorsi/teres major insertions and medial to the deltoid insertion. This was carried on just to the level of the deltoid insertion and carried out horizontally medially with direct retractor protection of the soft tissues. The osteotomy was opened and the Ultra-Drive used with a flat tip to remove cement from around the osteotomy and from around the prosthesis itself. The prosthesis was then disimpacted without difficulty. Proximal humerus was irrigated with pulse lavage. The Ultra-Drive was then used to remove additional cement to allow diaphyseal fitting component. The 6.5 and 9 mm discs were used to remove cement using Ultra-Drive under continuous irrigation to prevent overheating.
The cement plug was penetrated using the Ultra-Drive and the canal enlarged to allow the smallest revive component to be placed. The trial was placed at 25-30 degrees of retroversion and humerus retracted posteriorly. The wound was irrigated with pulse lavage. Significant amount of scar was removed circumferentially around the glenoid and scar released from the inferior glenoid along with capsular contracture. The wound was irrigated with pulse lavage.
Small guide pin was placed followed by reaming the inferior glenoid flat followed by reaming the superior glenoid with a 35-degree reamer for the half wedge component. This would fit well with the half wedge placed superiorly and posteriorly. The wound was irrigated with pulse lavage. 2g of Ancef had been given after obtaining adequate bone and soft tissue samples. The center hole was overdrilled followed by drilling for the central screw measuring 35 mm in length. The final component was placed into position and set screw tightened with excellent compression of the baseplate against the bone. The wound was irrigated with pulse lavage and the shoulder trialed with above-mentioned components trialing well. There was slight rotational instability of the humeral component, so decision was made to cement proximally. The wound was irrigated followed by placing the final component which was fixed with a central set screw. The proximal humerus was redislocated followed by removing the trial component. It should be noted that 2 NiceLoop sutures had been placed in modified racking hitch fashion and one 18-gauge wire placed proximally in standard fashion to close the vertical osteotomy. This opened slightly with placement of the press-fit component. The press-fit component would engage the distal aspect of the humerus distal to the osteotomy as well. The wound was irrigated with pulse lavage. One batch of DJO surgical cobalt G cement was mixed, and when reached the appropriate consistency, the humerus was irrigated, suctioned, and the cement was allowed, applied in doughy fashion to the proximal aspect of the component. It was impacted into position and excess cement removed. The wound was irrigated further. The cement was allowed to fully harden. Prosthesis was approximately 25 degrees of retroversion. A 2 cc aliquot of H-GENIN Wright Medical allograft DBM putty was then placed into the vertical osteotomy site to facilitate and expedite healing. This was after copious irrigation with pulse lavage. The pectoralis major was closed to the deltoid insertion covering the bone graft. A deep 3/16-inch Hemovac drain was placed followed by irrigating the joint further. Small bleeders were coagulated with electrocautery. The deltopectoral interval was closed using running O PDS Stratafix suture. Skin was closed using buried O and 2-0 Monocryl sutures followed by 3-0 Monocryl subcuticular and Steri-Strips. A 4 x 4 Tegaderm dressing was applied. The patient’s arm was placed in a well-padded, well-fitting UltraSling. She tolerated the procedure well.
It should be noted that 2 skilled surgical assistants, PA-C and SA-C, were absolutely required in order to perform procedure to the current standard of care in timely fashion. Total skin-to-skin operating time was approximately 3 hours and was prolonged due to the complex nature of this revision procedure.
To start early gentle passive range of motion program per protocol. Maximum forward flexion and abduction 90 degrees, external rotation of 30 degrees, internal rotation to the abdomen with active assisted motion allowed at 4 weeks postop, active motion allowed at 8 weeks postop. At 6-8 weeks postop, maximum forward flexion and abduction allowed would be 130 degrees, external rotation of 50 degrees, internal rotation to L3 with no aggressive end-range stretching. The patient will be admitted for standard postoperative medical and orthopedic care. Her culture results will be followed.